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By Howie J.M. (ed.)

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South-eastern Europe has then experienced several disruptive, disorderly mass exoduses, largely resulting from the disintegration of communist regimes, and in the case of Yugoslavia dissolution of the nationstate itself. The political and security domain has been uppermost in shaping these migration crises, but the economic arena has increasingly been brought into play. In longer term perspective, these movements and the region's new migration MIGRATION CRISES AND THE MAKING OF DIASPORAS 31 order have wider resonances of the post-Ottoman population transfers earlier in this century.

In the People’s Republic the hukou system of registration, established in the 1950s and which regulated internal, mainly rural to urban migration by tying entitlements to residence, has been loosening with the instigation of marketbased reforms: this has resulted in a “tidal wave” of internal movement —of an estimated “floating population” of 80 million in the 1990s, some 50 million are rural-to-urban migrants, perhaps the largest flow of migrant workers in history (Roberts 1997: 250–52). Some 20–30 million people from the countryside have been living illicitly in cities, many responding to the uneven economic boom, concentrated in the southeast.

Such acute forms of migration transition I term migration crises, involving sudden, massive, disorderly population movements. These may be pivotal episodes or critical moments which signal a juncture between one migration order and the next. “Crisis” is a much-used term in the context of migration, no less than in other arenas. For example, Myron Weiner (1995) has titled a recent book The global migration crisis, referring to what he and others see as a diffuse phenomenon widely felt and experienced throughout the world.

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An Introduction to Semigroup Theory by Howie J.M. (ed.)

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