Norman K Glendenning's After The Beginning: A Cosmic Journey Through Space And Time PDF

By Norman K Glendenning

ISBN-10: 1860944477

ISBN-13: 9781860944475

In an excellent flash approximately fourteen billion years in the past, time and subject have been born in one rapid of construction. An immensely scorching and dense universe begun its speedy growth in every single place, developing house the place there has been no area and time the place there has been no time. within the severe fireplace simply after the start, the lightest parts have been cast, later to shape primordial clouds that at last developed into galaxies, stars, and planets. This evolution is the tale advised during this attention-grabbing e-book. Interwoven with the storyline are brief items at the pioneering women and men who published these wonders to us.

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But, by employing what has been learned about how stars forge the elements, an estimate can be made — somewhere between 10 and 20 billion years ago. Other discoveries help pin down the age even more accurately. It is common knowledge nowadays that the universe is presently expanding, though this fact was not known at the time of Einstein's discovery and application of general relativity to the universe. The universe was thought to be static at the time (1919), just as Newton had believed. The Nobel Prize was never awarded for this grandest of theories — general relativity.

Such an electron can absorb a light q u a n t u m , but only of just the precise energy t h a t is needed to lift it from one quantized energy state of the a t o m to a higher one. 15 for the simplest a t o m — hydrogen — which has one proton as its nucleus and one electron in orbit. Hence the energies of the light q u a n t a t h a t each type of a t o m can absorb are unique to t h a t type of atom. 14. Such spectra are called absorption line spectra. By comparing the absorption lines in the spectrum coming from the distant star with lines produced by known atoms in the laboratory, the elements in the star's atmosphere can be identified.

21 Because of the universal expansion the two galaxies are moving away from each other even as light from one to the other is in transit. 22 This paragraph points out a paradox having to do with the fact that galaxies, though too distant to have ever been in the same causally connected environment in the past, are nevertheless similar. Why and how could conditions have been similar instead of different? The paradox is among the motivations behind the theory of cosmic inflation. Island Universes 29 2 Redshift The redshift (also called the Doppler shift) of light emitted by a receding source — say, a galaxy — is the fractional change in the wavelength of light between that received by an observer A0 and that emitted by the source A: z = (A0-A)/A.

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After The Beginning: A Cosmic Journey Through Space And Time by Norman K Glendenning


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