By David L. Wilson
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Additional resources for 11th Hour: Introduction to Biology (Eleventh Hour - Boston)
Thus, if we have a 2 M (M = molar = moles/liter) solution of glucose on one side of a membrane, and aIM solution on the other, then with time, more glucose molecules will pass in the direction from the 2M side to the 1M side than in the other direction. With time, this diffusion will tend to make the glucose concentrations equal on both Topic 2: Passive Transport Across Membranes 45 sides of the membrane. Of course, we are presuming that glucose is permeable, that is, able to cross the membrane.
Buffers tend to keep pH more constant. For example, if you add an acid or a base to pure water, you will get a quick change in pH. However, if there is a buffer, such as bicarbonate ion (HC0 3-), the pH might change very little, because with the addition of acid (H+): H+ + HC0 3 -7 H2 C0 3 -7 H2 0 + CO 2 and with the addition of base (OH-): OW + HC0 3- -7 C0 3- 2 + H2 0 In both cases the added acid or base is neutralized by the bicarbonate ion. ) that keep a near-constant pH in the body, except in certain diseases and disorders.
As expected of isomers, this pair also has the same chemical formula (C4 H8). are not alike, as can be seen by rotating one around. Notice that if the one on the left is rotated 180 degrees, then the Z group will be facing backward, into the paper. To make one like the other, two of the bonds must first be broken and then remade. If any carbon atom has four different groups attached to it, then it is an asynunetric carbon, and the molecule and its mirror image are called isomers. Isomers are two or more molecules that have the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms in space.
11th Hour: Introduction to Biology (Eleventh Hour - Boston) by David L. Wilson